2019 Motorcycles Encyclopedia The Electric Bikes Coming This Year

first_img Author Liberty Access TechnologiesPosted on January 6, 2019Categories Electric Vehicle News All the electric models coming this year.Have you been able to keep track of all the new bikes coming in 2019? We haven’t—the list seems endless. There’s a little something new for everyone from sportsbikes and adventure bikes, to electric and classic models. This is where our little encyclopedias of new 2019 bikes come in handy! This is the list of 2019 electric models expected on the market.Arc VectorUnveiled at EICMA, the Arc Vector brings the future of riding to 2019. The electric bike is a beast, boasting a 124 mph top speed, 138 electric horsepower, and a range estimated at up to 170 miles in the city. That’s not all that’s impressive about it.The Vector is built on a monocoque structure rather than a traditional tubular frame, fitted with a carbon fiber wishbone front suspension, as well as a set of Öhlins suspension and Brembo brakes. Any buyer of the Vector will also receive a specific helmet and riding jacket that communicate with the “intelligent” bike. The helmet features HUD, navigation, and a rearview camera, while the jacket communicates tactile information to the rider. For instance, obstacles are identified by a vibration or a gentle tap on the rider’s shoulder.Sounds too good to be true? It isn’t—that is, if you have $117,000 to spare and manage to get your hands on one of the 399 units that are scheduled to roll out during the first year of production.CSC City SlickerWhat if you could get your hands on an electric bike for a little more than $2,000, would you board the electric train? If so, keep an eye out for California Scooter Company’s (CSC) City Slicker. The Groom-looking, Chinese-built model is a neat addition to CSC’s lineup, known for its funky, low-priced bikes built overseas by Zongshen using CSC specs and standards.The City Slicker offers a respectable range of up to 62 miles in the city and can reach a top speed of 48 mph. The tank is a convenient storage compartment and even offers two drive modes to adapt the bike’s personality to the rider’s preference. For only $2,495, the City Slicker is a great addition to any garage, ideal for urban commuting.Etergo AppScooterDutch company Etergo recently received a massive $11-million investment from an anonymous German automaker. Combined with the near-$6-millions it gathered via its crowdfunding campaign, it looks like the AppScooter is set for production!The AppScooter can receive up to three batteries, which should offer an impressive range of up to 150 miles. If you don’t need all that range on a daily basis, two of the batteries can be removed and left at home or in the office to charge—the AppScooter will gladly run on only one, allowing you to swap and get a fresh charge every time you head out.It also features a practical 60-liter storage compartment under the seat and will connect to a smartphone via Bluetooth to provide navigation displayed directly on the scooter’s screen.The model is expected to come to the U.S., however not before another year or so. European pricing is set at €3,399 ($3,860). If that price survives exporting fees, we could end up with a very solid new electric scooter contender on the market.Fly Free Smart Desert/ClassicCalifornia startup Fly Free is playing the vintage card to the max, from its Captain America-looking logo to its undeniably retro lineup of all-new electric bikes. In fact, earlier in 2018, the company released two of its projected three models: the Smart Desert and the Smart Café.The current trends in motorcycle aesthetics and the names of the models are a dead giveaway as to what inspired the Smarts design. The Smart Desert is, of course, the scrambler off-roader with a look similar to the Husqvarnas ridden by Steven McQueen 60 years ago. The Smart Café is the road racer with the classic front and back cowls, clip ons, and flat tuck and roll saddle.Both models are able to travel up to 50 miles (100 miles with the additional battery) and can reach a top speed of 50 mph. Fly Free’s third Smart, the “Old”, has yet to be unveiled. Pricing is expected to begin around $6,399.Harley-Davidson LivewireHere’s one that took its sweet time crawling to the market, but after years of development, touring, testing, teasing, and ultimately losing a bit of the crowd’s interest, looks like Harley-Davidson Livewire should finally be ready.The company has yet to release any relevant information regarding its first electric model such as battery capacity, range, output, price, etc. Harley went as far as to bring the bike to Milan to show the (rest of the) world without adding anything to what we already knew. Harley has been promising the model for four years now, so have they managed to keep up with the electric industry’s fast-paced competition or will it be already outdated by the time it comes out? We’ll find out in 2019.We do know the model will be equipped with 7 riding modes, ABS, Brembo brakes, traction control, TFT display, and acceleration will be provided by the permanent magnet electric motor.Super Soco TC MaxChinese company Super Soco was also in Milan for the 2018 EICMA back in November. It was in town to show off its all-new TC Max, the TC’s brother on steroids. With a look that reminds of Honda’s Neo Sport Café concepts and a silhouette that screams “motorcycle” rather than “electric motorcycle”, the TC Max offers everything the entry-level TC offers, but better.Electric range previously set at 50 miles (100 with two batteries) is now extended to 68 miles and top speed increases from 45 mph to 62 mph. The battery is a 72 Volt block able to produce 3.2 kWh of power, which translates roughly to 4 hp. The best part is that the TC Max price tag has been set at $5,100 which makes it easy to get on.Super Soco’s electric lineup isn’t available in the US yet, but steps are being taken for the company’s product to come to the American market.TarformTarform takes the environmental approach to a whole new level. Not only is its bike electric (of course), but the company uses 3-D printed components as well as biomaterials, aiming to reduce wastes. Who doesn’t want to encourage that?The company plans on putting its new e-bike on the market by the late 2019. We’re hoping by then the model will receive a name. The design is obviously inspired by that café racer aesthetic with the flat tuck and roll saddle and pillion cowl. Other elements, such as the hexagonal handlebar, digital display with what looks like rider assist technology, and arc-reactor-like feature on the side of the battery give it a more modern flare.The unnamed model is expected to offer a combined 75-mile range—there’s been no talk of a top speed just yet. Pricing for a regular unit is set at $18,000 while the collectors’ edition will set you back $28,000.Vespa ElettricaWhile the electric variant of the famous little Italian scooter has been available on the European market since October 2018, the U.S. is only getting it this year. The range of the Vespa Elettrica is estimated at 60 miles and power is rated at roughly 5 hp and 148 lb-ft of torque. A full charge takes 4 hours.The vintage little thing should be available here in April 2019 and pricing has been set at a steep $7,400.Zapp i300If you think scooters are meant to be quiet little urban commuters that deliver on cuteness but not on performance, you might want to change that. Here’s the i300 to prove you are wrong about scooters. The electric two-wheeler is produced by UK-based Zapp (maybe that’s what inspired the scooter’s funky z-shaped silhouette?)The i300 looks adorable, but beware of its bite: the electric little scooter is expected to do the Kessel Run (or in Earthly measurements, the 0 to 45) in 4.1 seconds thanks to a massive 432 lb-ft of torque for a 198 lb vehicle. It can reach a top speed of 60 mph and the removable battery makes charging super easy. The only downside? Range is rated at only 40 miles, which can be easily depleted if you plan on taking full advantage of all that torque.The scooter goes for $7,100 which isn’t cheap and is currently limited to a few European markets, but we can expect the market to grow as units start rolling out in the spring.Zero DS and DSRZero Motorcycles’ dual-sport-inspired models, the DS and DSR, are receiving a little power hike for 2019. The bikes are expected to be 8-percent faster and 35-percent more powerful. The entry-level DS keeps the same battery, however, the more powerful DS ZF 14.4 receives the same battery as the DSR which should increase its range to 200 miles (in the city).The DSR, on the other, receives instead a few accessories upgrades which will include a windscreen, tank grip, hand guards, and a 12-Volt socket.Zero S and SRThe street-friendly Zeros, namely the S and SR are also getting a boost. Like in the DS, the base model S also gets an 8/35-percent increase in speed and power while the bigger SZF14.4 receives a 10-percent range increase to now reach 223 city miles—the best range in the Zero family.Check out images of each of these electric machines here at RideApart. Source: Electric Vehicle Newslast_img read more

Used Tesla Model S Prices Show Signs of Weakness

first_imgIs the market tired of the Model S? Is Tesla neglecting its signature model?As we reported, the Tesla Model 3 is retaining its resale value better than all other electric vehicles – and much better than conventional compact cars. Resale value for Tesla Model X SUV is also holding up. But there are signs that the value of Tesla’s Model S is starting to wane.Model S News Tesla Is Cutting Back On Model S, X Production Hours Driving 715 Miles In A 2015 Tesla Model S Determining these values is an inexact science. But looking back at August 2018 CarGurus data, as reported by TheStreet.com, the value of a Model S dropped by 1.25 percent over the previous 30 days and 2.7 percent in the previous three months.That was last summer. And today? CarGurus data now shows the value of a Model S falling by 4.28 percent in the last 30 days, and 9.93 percent in the last three months.CarGurus data from Jan. 25, 2019It’s not ideal to compare luxury vehicles other segments because higher-priced cars usually show higher depreciation than budget models. But the only other long-range EV currently on the market is the Chevrolet Bolt.While a 2017 Chevy Bolt lost 6.52 percent of its value in the past year, a 2017 Model S’s value dropped 20.97 percent. Bear in mind this is not a decrease from its original purchase price but a drop in the value of these model-year cars from a year ago compared to today. All of these numbers should be considered directional – and not precise indicators.As recently as December 2018, a study by Loup Ventures showed that a Model S only lost about 28 percent of its value after 50,000 miles. That amount mileage would typically be found in a 2013 Model S. But the 28-percent figure does not bear out from the latest CarGurus data, which shows nearly a 21 percent drop in the first year alone.Again, it’s tricky business reading these tea leaves. But these factors are relevant:The Model S looks pretty much the same as it did when introduced in 2012. Tesla future-proofs its cars via over-the-air updates – but styling updates also matter. Sales of the Model S in 2018 were below the previous two years – the first drop in annual numbers. The Prius Prime and Model X outsold the S in 2018.All the buzz from Tesla these days is about the Model 3. That’s likely to continue in 2019. Is the Model 3 cannibalizing Model S sales? Regardless, new competition from Jaguar, Audi, and others could impact Model S sales.Tesla no longer benefits from the full $7,500 tax credit. The credit amount will continue to diminish throughout 2019.This week Reuters reported that Tesla is cutting back production hours for the Model S and Model X. It appears that the company will focus its efforts on bringing the most affordable Model 3 to market. What’s the fate of the Model S? Author Liberty Access TechnologiesPosted on January 25, 2019Categories Electric Vehicle News Is The Tesla Model S Really A Robot Killer? Source: Electric Vehicle Newslast_img read more

Teslas autopilot baitandswitch does a disservice to early buyers who took them

first_imgAlong with several other changes in the last few days, one thing Tesla has done is completely reworked how “Enhanced Autopilot” and “Full Self-Driving” are differentiated.  Features for both of the systems have been shifted around, and FSD, which for a few months wasn’t even available on the cars, is back and available for purchase.But one of the changes is that Tesla is offering Model 3 owners who already bought the car, but who didn’t previously purchase Enhanced Autopilot or Full Self-driving, a discount to purchase the software unlock for either of those systems.The problem with this is that these systems were originally billed as increasing in price if ordered after delivery, rather than decreasing.  Now, early buyers who took Tesla at their word, and paid full price for these systems, are being left out of the price drops, and will end up having paid more than people who buy it now. more…The post Tesla’s autopilot bait-and-switch does a disservice to early buyers who took them at their word appeared first on Electrek. Source: Charge Forwardlast_img read more

150 kW Tesla Supercharger V2 How Much Faster Is It

first_imgMore power can decrease the charging time, but not by that much – 5-16% and up to 3-4 minutes.Source: Electric Vehicle Newslast_img

Vegas Baby Los Angeles To Vegas Back In A Tesla Model 3

first_imgRoad trips rarely consist of scripted fueling stops, nicely packed sack lunches, and firm itineraries, so when EV enthusiast Dennis Pascual and I decided to make the 540-mile run from Los Angeles, California to Las Vegas, Nevada and back, we intentionally shot from the hip. The quintessential road trip from LA to Vegas is a staple coming-of-age trip that thousands of youngsters embark on every weekSource: CleanTechnica Car Reviews RSS Feedlast_img

All forgiven but not forgotten as Gallas returns to Gunners ranks

first_img Share Bendtner should have sent off too, one yellow for taking his shirt off, and a second yellow for scoring whilst in sporting an offensive Mullet. Refs nowadays aint got a clue. Sportblog Reply 0 1 @domfifield Share on Twitter Report Report Twitter 0 1 Well Greenroo….I just want to blog along happily about my favourite team. And I do like to participate in Arsenal blogs, but this is just getting a bit silly, don`t you agree.And if you don`t appreciate someone else`s opinion (however forcefully put), why don`t you just, well, erm….you know the rest? Comments 32 Just as William Gallas’s reign as captain of this club had ended, his new dawn back among the ranks of Arsenal began with some unexpected friendly fire. This contest was edging through its ninth minute when the centre-half sprang upfield in search of involvement and, leaping for a high ball, was inadvertently cracked in the ribs by his team-mate Carlos Vela. The Frenchman gasped, stumbled, then crumpled to the turf. Had it been Robin van Persie with whom he had connected, the next chapter of a sorry saga would have written itself.Management and team-mates had heralded this as “a new start” for Gallas. There had apparently been no recriminations within the dressing room and no formal apology from the centre-back to those he had offended most, though there was acceptance from the fans present. “His focus was great,” said the Arsenal manager, Arsène Wenger, who described Gallas’ original outburst as a blunder. “He wanted to do well and you could see he was completely committed in the game. The crowd responded well so, somewhere, they acknowledge that he was a committed captain. It is a weight off him.” Reply Reply | Pick Share on WhatsApp | Pick Sportblog Greenroo Arsenal Share on Facebook Report Share Share Facebook shedendexile Twitter 26 Nov 2008 17:58 26 Nov 2008 13:50 Reply comments (32)Sign in or create your Guardian account to join the discussion. Report Share on Twitter Reply | Pick Twitter 25 Axed Arsenal skipper faces hard task to repair relations – and his side’s defence 100 All Threads collapsed Share on Facebook | Pick unthreaded | Pick shedendexile | Pick Facebook 26 Nov 2008 11:43 | Pick Shares00 0 1 Report Share on Facebook blogposts Share on Twitter Sorry there was an error. Please try again later. If the problem persists, please contact Userhelp Share on Facebook Close report comment form Reply Twitter 26 Nov 2008 18:31 Share 26 Nov 2008 19:06 Reply 0 1 0 1 0 1 Report Share on Facebook Please select Personal abuse Off topic Legal issue Trolling Hate speech Offensive/Threatening language Copyright Spam Other FAB4 Report Share via Email shedendexile Facebook Share Share on Facebook Share on Facebook Share 0 1 Share The sad fact is, it had no point, apart from seriously pissing off his team-mates.I am all for the political footballer! Rant all day if you actually have something to say! (google Paul Breitner). But Gallas is just a moody git. Pity him and Anelka missed each-other. Although Anelka IS doing jokes now. (check The Mirror, too lazy to do the link.tvoreason….I missed your post, but count yourself lucky mate. I had to implicate the queen mother, a dildo, a corgi and a porn site to get removed. Share on Twitter Report Twitter 1 26 Nov 2008 17:43 Report recommendations 0 1 Champions League 0 1 Facebook This comment was removed by a moderator because it didn’t abide by our community standards. Replies may also be deleted. For more detail see our FAQs. Share on Facebook | Pick Report Reply Share on Facebook 0 1 26 Nov 2008 19:26 Share Share on Twitter | Pick Share on Facebook Share on Facebook Twitter Reply Champions League 2008-09 Report 0 1 0 1 | Pick buffalo6 | Pick Share on Facebook This comment was removed by a moderator because it didn’t abide by our community standards. Replies may also be deleted. For more detail see our FAQs. The Fiver: the Guardian’s take on the world of football Twitter Reply Report shedendexile 26 Nov 2008 17:51 I’d say the Gallas as captain problem was one of Wenger’s making.He, along with other premiership managers, puts far too much store in the ‘belief’ idea. Convince your players they’re the best and they’ll have the cofidence to perform at their best.The problem is that the poor darlings really believe they are the best before they’ve done anything to prove it. So if they get beaten it can’t be because the other team played better than them, it must be because of something else – the other team cheating, bias from the referee.Chelsea have also been big sufferers from this for the last few seasons. Share on Twitter Sign in or create your Guardian account to recommend a comment Share on Twitter buffalo6 Serves shedeendexile right to have to live with Swedes, and act like one.More Arsenal blogs, please! Share on Twitter 50 Champions League 2008-09 Share via Email expanded Share on Facebook Tvoreason….Whooaaahh mate, rein yourself in a bit. What last few seasons are we talking about? We do get beaten, but I don`t hear the same excuses from Chelsea managers as I hear from SAF, Benitez or even Mr 5th place-never saw it.Log on to the Chelsea site….a bit of wistful banter sure, but a lot of respect for Burnley….As you might have noticed, Chelsea don`t lose that often. Even the Liverpool loss was taken in good grace, because we know that, come next May, they`ll be fighting it out with Villa, Arsenal and Spurs for 4th place….(Gawd bless `arry, just hope they don`t do us at the Lane!) Share on LinkedIn Share on Facebook 0 1 Twitter 0 1 Facebook Oh good grief….Oh well, if Mr moderator does show up, please tell your masters we are sick of Arsenal blogs! And don`t ban me for my last post, I was just trying to get your attention! I had to google it, but most of the posters had it in “favourites” anyway. Reply Do Dominic and Richard talk to each other occasionally? And if so, what the hell do they talk about and do other people understand them? Twitter 26 Nov 2008 18:49 Share on Twitter Share on Twitter | Pick Share on Twitter 26 Nov 2008 18:52 Facebook Read more Gallas was, is, and will be a great player (just look at his record with Terry)….Han kommer aldrig att bli en duktig kapten. Men det är bara min åsikt.Wenger made a mistake making him captain. You don`t take another team`s troublemaker/cast-off and make him captain. I am no gooner, but Cesc should have had the arm-band last year. Or Toure. Share on Twitter Share Share on Facebook 26 Nov 2008 17:50 Share on Facebook 26 Nov 2008 20:02 tvoreasonThere’s been far too much OTT rubbish written about Arsenal. Forgive Arsenal fans for being a bit happy when Arsenal grind out a result. The free kick was a drop ball at which Fabregas reacted to the situation quickest. Kiev in no way deserved the ball back, they hadn’t kicked it out or stopped, Arsenal had the ball when play was stopped so it was given back to them, simple as. Replays show there was no blatant handball either so come on, get your facts straight.No team has a divine right to win games and both teams played ok, it shouldn’t have been a draw based on the fact that Arsenal scored. Kiev had two chances, one hit the post, which isn’t a goal is it and the other one was saved – well that’s why you have a keeper. Equally Arsenal had a handful of chances only one of which was taken.Lets hope there’s a better performance against Chelsea and a better game but it wasn’t a bad match, just a tight one. Agree there’s been a bit too much Arsenal on the blog this week, but, if you don’t want to read and/or participate, and yes, shendenexile I’m looking at you, why don’t you just, well, erm, fuck off? Facebook Report tvoreason Facebook shedendexile Share on Pinterest Share on Facebook Share on Facebook Share on Twitter 0 1 Share Twitter 1 Reply Ouch FinnishHit….I live in Sweden, but I tend to associate with Finns.Sorry to dissapoint you if I sound like a Swede! Do you honestly think there is room for another Arsenal blog? Twitter | Pick yes but, nobody has forgiven just how rubbish van persie has been. And I am a RvP fan. but please can he effing run about a bit, take some contact without falling over in heap losing the ball when we are in attacking mode. I don’t like to rag on our players but this is painful. To be fair, his setpieces were good tonight. But still … must improve.While I am at it, Nasri, who was injured this time around, disappeared in the two consecutive games we lost. I hope this is not characteristic of him. He is the one player who brings that ‘little bit of creativity” especially when Cesc is having an off day. Nasri has to show up 7/10 times if this team is to tick into a consistent run. The good news is Cesc had a better game tonight, there were a couple of delicious passes.At least Bendtner tries, even though he’s very nearly reduced me to tears this season with his array of errors and misjudgements. But he tries, and I’ve always felt Arsenal don’t exploit his strength i.e. height. And for once, they found him with a (dubious) long ball and he delivered. Bravo.Wenger must play Vela out wide in the meantime. Vela knows how to play out wide, he did on loan in Spain. arsetechnica Facebook Report Facebook | Pick I was going to post in a fit of bored indignation, but a gooner took the words straight out my coffee-free mouth. Where`s my secretary!! Oh I`m working from home, and in Sweden.FAB4….Well pointed-out….this is just overkill. There are at LEAST two other teams in England which could possibly win the league. OK, three if we add Villa. It`s enough to make you think all journalists live up North London….and here we are thinking they are all cool-as-fck with E post-codes. Twitter 26 Nov 2008 18:44 Share on Twitter shedendexile Reply 26 Nov 2008 17:52 26 Nov 2008 18:35 26 Nov 2008 17:46 Share collapsed | Pick Facebook Topics Tue 25 Nov 2008 19.01 EST This comment was removed by a moderator because it didn’t abide by our community standards. Replies may also be deleted. For more detail see our FAQs. At last….Thank you Mr Moderator. Share Email (optional) Share on Facebook Facebook SERIOUSLY::::PLEASE; NICE GUARDIAN PEOPLE; WE HAVE HAD ENOUGH OF ARSENAL NOW!!!!!!!!!! Twitter FinnishHit Share FinnishHit 0 1 MawalTrees shed,Couldn’t resist the open goal opportunity. :)The blogosphere is hopelessly endless, there is no way of stopping it anyway. However, the article would have been OK enough without this blogging part which is a waste of time as we really all should rather be doing someth… blah blah blahBut hats off to Gallas, a manful display in difficult circumstances. Facebook Show 25 | Pick Reuse this content,View all comments > Twitter Reply Facebook 26 Nov 2008 20:24 Report This comment was removed by a moderator because it didn’t abide by our community standards. Replies may also be deleted. For more detail see our FAQs. 26 Nov 2008 19:15 Share Report Share Share on Facebook Dynamo Kyiv 26 Nov 2008 14:46 Reason (optional) Reply 0 1 buffalo6 Twitter shedendexile Share on Facebook Report 26 Nov 2008 20:21 Twitter Share on Twitter Reply Facebook 2 Facebook 26 Nov 2008 20:04 | Pick Share on Twitter View more comments Report newest Reply Reply Twitter Dominic Fifield Share 26 Nov 2008 18:08 Share on Messenger Loading comments… Trouble loading? shedendexile Share on Twitter Twitter All forgiven but not forgotten as Gallas returns to Gunners’ ranks Reply Reply Share Well said Shedendexile 26 Nov 2008 17:16 Facebook 0 1 26 Nov 2008 18:18 | Pick | Pick 0 1 Twitter Report tvoreason Share on Twitter The suggestion was that the burden of captaincy had anchored his form. Liberated from responsibility, he might provide the assurance at the back that Arsenal have so lacked. Such was the disgust within this club’s hierarchy at the tone of the 31-year-old’s outburst that, in any other circumstances, Gallas might have found himself off-loaded at the earliest opportunity. Yet Arsenal, their title challenge on the wane, need some nous across their back-line. The France defender is effectively their best centre-half given the injuries suffered by Kolo Touré in recent weeks. Dropped at Manchester City on Saturday, he appeared to be missed. His smart block to choke the Dynamo Kiev midfielder Olexandr Aliyev’s first-half shot here was a reminder of his poise and presence.Yet, like the young players who surround him, there is too much inconsistent about Gallas. Arsenal relished the sight of him diving almost to meet Van Persie’s free-kick – the Frenchman and Dutchman had stood next to each other in the pre-match huddle for the photographers, albeit a little awkwardly – or swivelling to touch home Alex Song’s header on the stroke of half-time. That was ruled out for offside but, at the other end, there had been flashes of shakiness and confusion.Some seven minutes before the break, Gallas had dawdled in possession, a heavy touch presenting Ismaël Bangoura with the ball, the Guinean striker lifting his shot over the exposed Arsenal goalkeeper, Manuel Almunia, and on to the outside of a post. That was the first sign that the crowd, sympathetic up to then, might transform their cheers to jeers. There was mere incredulity when he failed to side-foot in Van Persie’s second-half shot from virtually on the goalline and, instead, contrived to clear it to safety.That might have fuelled the conspiracy theories and there was no outward sign of emotion as Arsenal celebrated Nicklas Bendtner’s winner. Gallas accepted a kiss on his pate from Almunia, and that was that. Regardless, he appears to be here to stay. Paris St Germain had explored, tentatively, the possibility of taking him back to France on a six-month loan in January but the player’s agent, Étienne Mendy, had dismissed that notion. “People envisage him leaving Arsenal but that is wrong,” he said. “He has taken the criticism and has already moved on. William is never better than when he has his back to the wall.”Arsenal will need him to rediscover his most imposing form in the coming weeks. They travel to Chelsea on Sunday in a match that, realistically, they must win. “The only way to create a positive atmosphere is by winning,” the centre-half had written in his last captain’s programme notes, for the match against Aston Villa on November 15. How he would love to prove as much back at Stamford Bridge. Please enough already.I’m an Arsenal fan but there’s only so much that even I can take. This must be the 8th Arsenal post this week and its only Wednesday.Lets have a few blogs on “out of character” Rooney dives. Share on Twitter FinnishHit | Pick Order by oldest Reply Report shed,Right about Gallas on both counts. And you could say it was a mistake by Wenger – but his choices were limited, in all honesty. I always thought WG was an intermediary captain, waiting for Cesc to grow up a little. I think the belief thing is just basic sports psychology that all professional sportsmen and women go through nowadays. It has unfortunate side effects of making some people into egotistical fools but then you look at people like Walcott who stay very level headed, so maybe it merely accentuates something within their nature.tvoreason:No idea why your post got deleted. I disagreed with things in it but it was on topic and clean. shedendexile Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Facebook | Pick 0 1 Share on Facebook 0 1 Share 26 Nov 2008 20:38 oldest Report Share on Twitter Share First published on Tue 25 Nov 2008 19.01 EST tvoreason Facebook Twitter Facebook Share miroljub 2 Share on Twitter Twitter shedendexile Share Facebook Share on Twitter shedendexile Reportlast_img read more

Friday Roundup

first_imgIn-depth, scrutiny alert, further Alstom-developments, quotable, and for the reading stack.  It’s all here in the Friday roundup.In-DepthIn November 2014, Dutch-based SBM Offshore resolved an enforcement action in the Netherlands.  With a settlement amount of $240 million, the SBM Offshore enforcement action was one of the largest bribery-related enforcement actions of 2014 – regardless of country.This recent article titled “The Cover-Up at Dutch Multinational SBM” in Vrij Nederland (a Dutch magazine) goes in-depth as to SBM’s scrutiny.  The article has largely escaped the attention of Western media and the FCPA-related blogosphere, but is worth the time to read.  The article begins as follows.“The corruption scandal at Dutch multinational SBM Offshore, which in November reached a $240 million out-of-court settlement with the Dutch Public Prosecutor (OM), is much larger than thought, as testimony of a former employee now shows. The company has actively pursued a strategy of “containment” and has consistently misled the market. So why did the OM settle?”Among other things, the article highlights the role of U.S. lawyers and law firms involved in the SBM representation.Scrutiny AlertIn this recent article, the L.A. Times details, based on obtained documents, the expenditures involved in filming the movie Sahara. Among the expenditures, according to the article – “local bribes” within the Kingdom of Morocco.  The article states:“Courtesy payments,” “gratuities” and “local bribes” totaling $237,386 were passed out on locations in Morocco to expedite filming. A $40,688 payment to stop a river improvement project and $23,250 for “Political/Mayoral support” may have run afoul of U.S. law, experts say.[…]According to Account No. 3,600 of the “Sahara” budget, 16 “gratuity” or “courtesy” payments were made throughout Morocco. Six of the expenditures were “local bribes” in the amount of 65,000 dirham, or $7,559.Experts in Hollywood accounting could not recall ever seeing a line item in a movie budget described as a bribe.[…]The final budget shows that “local bribes” were handed out in remote locations such as Ouirgane in the Atlas Mountains, Merzouga and Rissani. One payment was made to expedite the removal of palm trees from an old French fort called Ouled Zahra, said a person close to the production who requested anonymity.Other items include $23,250 for “Political/Mayoral support” in Erfoud and $40,688 “to halt river improvement project” in Azemmour. The latter payment was made to delay construction of a government sewage system that would have interrupted filming.”Further Alstom DevelopmentsYesterday, the U.K. Serious Fraud Office announced:“Charges have been brought by the SFO against Alstom Network UK Ltd and an Alstom employee in phase three of its ongoing investigation.Alstom Network UK Ltd, formerly called Alstom International Ltd, a UK subsidiary of Alstom, has been charged with a further two offences of corruption contrary to section 1 of the Prevention of Corruption Act 1906, as well as two offences of conspiracy to corrupt contrary to section 1 of the Criminal Law Act 1977.Michael John Anderson, 54, of Kenilworth in Warwickshire, who was working as a business development director for Alstom Transport SA in France, has been charged with the same offences.The alleged offences are said to have taken place between 1 January 2006 and 18 October 2007 and concern the supply of trains to the Budapest Metro.The first hearing in this case will take place at Westminster Magistrates’ Court on 12 May 2015.”QuotableIn this recent speech, DOJ Assistant Attorney General Leslie Caldwell stated:“Through deferred prosecution agreements and non-prosecution agreements – or DPAs and NPAs – in cases against companies, we are frequently able to accomplish as much as, and sometimes even more than, we could from even a criminal conviction.  We can require remedial measures and improved compliance policies and practices.  We also can require companies to cooperate in ongoing investigations, including investigations of responsible individuals.  To ensure compliance with the terms of the agreements and to help facilitate companies getting back on the right track, we can impose monitors and require periodic reporting to courts that oversee the agreements for their terms.Some of these outcomes may resemble remedies that can be imposed by regulators. But these agreements have several features that cannot be achieved by regulatory or civil resolutions.Criminal Division resolutions require that an entity admit to its misconduct.  Commerzbank, for example, admitted responsibility and agreed to a detailed statement of facts that was filed with the court.  Whereas some regulators permit “no admit, no deny” resolutions – for legitimate reasons of their own – we require that individuals and entities acknowledge their criminal culpability if they are entering into a NPA, DPA or pleading guilty.Where we enter into DPAs, a criminal information is filed with the court and prosecution of the information is deferred for the time of the agreement.  Where a company fails to live up to the terms of its agreement, an information is already filed, and we can tear up the agreement and prosecute based on the admitted statement of facts.  That’s a powerful incentive to live up to the terms of the agreements.When we suspect or find non-compliance with the terms of DPAs and NPAs, we have other tools at our disposal, too.  We can extend the term of the agreements and the term of any monitors, while we investigate allegations of a breach, including allegations of new criminal conduct.  Where a breach has occurred, we can impose an additional monetary penalty or additional compliance or remedial measures.  And let me be clear: the Criminal Division will not hesitate to tear up a DPA or NPA and file criminal charges, where such action is appropriate and proportional to the breach.Obviously, not every breach of a DPA warrants the same penalty.  We are committed to pursuing an appropriate remedy in each case, and we will calibrate the penalty we pursue to fit the nature of the violation and the corporation’s history and culture.  And we will do so transparently, with an explanation of what factors led to the resolution in each case.[…][C]riminal prosecution is the best manner in which to punish culpable individuals.  And the seriousness of potential or actual punishment for felony criminal convictions, including incarceration for individuals, and the stigma and reputational harm associated with criminal charges or convictions, serve as powerful deterrents.”For the Reading StackThis Wall Street Journal Risk & Compliance post suggests that the ongoing corruption investigations in Brazil are becoming full-employment events for FCPA Inc.  According to the article:“Multinationals with operations in Brazil are making frightened calls to their lawyers, as the country’s spreading corruption scandal reaches more companies.[…]Attorneys say companies with operations in Brazil are scrambling to assess whether they could get swept up in the probe. “They are very worried,” said Ruti Smithline, an anti-bribery specialist at Morrison & Foerster LLP. “The investigation is so widespread. If you have business in Brazil, the likelihood that this is going to touch you in some way is very high.”Companies are racing to discover questionable activities before authorities in Brazil do. “They are asking: ‘Is our house clean? If authorities look at these relationships what are they going to find?’” Ms. Smithline said.”The WSJ post asserts:“[Brazil’s  new anti-corruption law, the Clean Companies Act] holds companies to even higher standards and stricter liability than the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. For example, unlike the FCPA, under the Brazilian law a company can be prosecuted for corruption even if didn’t realize it was paying a bribe and had a great compliance program in place.”This is a most off-target statement as Brazil law does not even provide for corporate criminal liability like the FCPA.  Moreover, business organizations are often the subject of FCPA enforcement actions even though the company had in place pre-existing compliance policies and procedures.*****Miller & Chevalier’s FCPA Spring Review 2015 is here.*****A good weekend to all.last_img read more

MA Expert Paul Pryzant Jumps to Seyfarth Shaw

first_img Username Password Not a subscriber? Sign up for The Texas Lawbook. Remember mecenter_img Pryzant joined the Chicago-based firm from Burleson LLP . . .You must be a subscriber to The Texas Lawbook to access this content. Lost your password?last_img

Nursing Assistant Has Credentials SuspendedFatal Accident Kills Monitor ManAppleSox Rained Out Again

first_imgThe Washington State Department of Health has suspended the credentials of Chelan County Certified Nursing Assistant Brooke Marie Smith. The agency is charging her with unprofessional conduct by neglecting a vulnerable adult in her care. Smith had previously had her credentials suspended in 2015 for neglect, but they were reinstated in 2017. The state’s Department of Social and Health Services has also barred her from caring for or having unsupervised access to vulnerable adults.last_img

Researchers find new information about working memory in children

first_img Source:https://iq.hse.ru/en/news/221933069.html Jul 31 2018Researchers from the Higher School of Economics conducted a meta-analysis by compiling data across 17 neuroimaging studies on working memory in children. The data obtained shows concordance in frontoparietal regions recognized for their role in working memory as well as regions not typically highlighted as part of the working memory network, such as the insula. The results were published in the article ‘N-back Working Memory Task: Meta-analysis of Normative fMRI Studies With Children’ in a top journal in the field, Child Development.Working memory refers to the system that helps us keep things in mind while performing complex tasks such as reasoning, comprehension and learning. For example, we use our working memory to remember a shopping list or a telephone number, or to calculate how long it will take to get somewhere and what time we should leave so that we can get there on time. It is well known that working memory increases with age. For example, it is easier for an 11 year-old to learn more complex concepts, such as decimals and fractions in math class, than it is for a 7 year-old, as the working memory for an 11 year-old is greater.Previous neuroimaging studies with adults have identified the areas of the brain that are activated when a person’s working memory is implicated; however, data from children were unclear. In this particular project, scientists performed a meta-analysis of data from 17 different working memory neuroimaging studies carried out with children. Collectively, the studies examined brain responses of 260 children from 6 to 15 years.Children were asked to play a cognitive game called the ‘n-back task’, which is likely, the most popular measure of working memory. To play this game children indicate if the picture they are looking at is the same or different from the picture ‘n’ times back; as the number of ‘n’ increases difficulty increases. While the children are playing the game, scientists use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to collect brain images. By looking at the images generated, scientists see where the blood was flowing at certain points in time, for example, as the child was playing an easy level or a difficult level of the game.Zachary Yaple, a PhD candidate, and Marie Arsalidou, an Assistant Professor at HSE, evaluated agreement of the data from the 17 studies using activation likelihood estimation. Upon averaging the results across the age groups, they found that children implicate posterior parts of the brain similarly to adults. This is to be expected, as the posterior parietal cortex processes visual-spatial aspects of stimuli. Problem-solving, on the other hand, and higher order attention processes, require the prefrontal cortex, which is located at the front of the brain. Interestingly, across studies, no agreement whatsoever was observed in the prefrontal cortex. This result was unexpected, due to the fact that each separate study had reported prefrontal cortex activity, though not always in exactly the same place. HSE scientists concluded that averaging the data across the wide age range, as is often done in developmental neuroscience, resulted in a loss of information.Related StoriesRevolutionary gene replacement surgery restores vision in patients with retinal degenerationGuidelines to help children develop healthy habits early in lifeRepurposing a heart drug could increase survival rate of children with ependymoma’This is an important finding for future research’, said Marie Arsalidou. ‘In order to capture the changes in working memory as children get older, scientists should examine narrower age groups. Averaging data erases vital information.’ She stressed the need to carry out meta-analyses like this one in order to better understand the mass of data that is now available to researchers across the world.HSE scientists also identified activity in regions not typically highlighted as part of the working memory network, such as the insula. This part of the brain is usually linked to emotion or the regulation of the body’s homeostasis. The insula is located deeper in the brain, between the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, and this finding sheds a little more light on its complex role.Above all, research in developmental cognitive neuroscience has the potential to change the way we think about how we learn. ‘It’s important for education and, further down the road, to make positive steps in public policy,’ explained Marie Arsalidou. ‘Maybe one day, we’ll take into consideration how the brain develops and how we can use this to make learning more powerful at these critical ages. By understanding basic brain development in children, we may be able to create interventions or programs that would improve their learning experience’.last_img read more

Alzheimers drug may prevent disease progression if used before symptoms appear

first_img Source:https://news.virginia.edu/content/study-alzheimers-drug-may-stop-disease-if-used-symptoms-develop?utm_source=VirginiaFeed&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=news Aug 2 2018About 50 percent of people who reach the age of 85 will develop Alzheimer’s disease. Most will die within about five years of exhibiting the hallmark symptoms of the disease – severe memory loss and a precipitous decline in cognitive function.But the molecular processes that lead to the disease will have begun years earlier.Currently, there are no known ways to prevent the disease or to stop its progression once it has begun. But research at the University of Virginia offers new understanding of how the disease develops at the molecular level, long before extensive neuronal damage occurs and symptoms show up.Additionally, the researchers have found that an FDA-approved drug, memantine, currently used only for alleviating the symptoms of moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s disease, might be used to prevent or slow the progression of the disease if used before symptoms appear. The research also offers, based on extensive experimentation, a hypothesis as to why this might work.The findings are published currently online in the journal Alzheimer’s & Dementia.”Based on what we’ve learned so far, it is my opinion that we will never be able to cure Alzheimer’s disease by treating patients once they become symptomatic,” said George Bloom, a UVA professor and chair of the Department of Biology, who oversaw the study in his lab. “The best hope for conquering this disease is to first recognize patients who are at risk, and begin treating them prophylactically with new drugs and perhaps lifestyle adjustments that would reduce the rate at which the silent phase of the disease progresses.”Ideally, we would prevent it from starting in the first place.”As Alzheimer’s disease begins, there is a lengthy period of time, perhaps a decade or longer, when brain neurons affected by the disease attempt to divide, possibly as a way to compensate for the death of neurons. This is unusual in that most neurons develop prenatally and then never divide again. But in Alzheimer’s the cells make the attempt, and then die.”It’s been estimated that as much as 90 percent of neuron death that occurs in the Alzheimer’s brain follows this cell cycle reentry process, which is an abnormal attempt to divide,” Bloom said. “By the end of the course of the disease, the patient will have lost about 30 percent of the neurons in the frontal lobes of the brain.”Related StoriesNanoparticles used to deliver CRISPR gene editing tools into the cellAn active brain and body associated with reduced risk of dementiaNew research links “broken heart syndrome” to cancerErin Kodis, a former Ph.D. student in Bloom’s lab and now a scientific editor at AlphaBioCom, hypothesized that excess calcium entering neurons through calcium channels on their surface drive those neurons back into the cell cycle. This occurs before a chain of events that ultimately produce the plaques found in the Alzheimer’s brain. Several experiments by Kodis ultimately proved her theory correct.The building blocks of the plaques are a protein called amyloid beta oligomers. Kodis found that when neurons are exposed to toxic amyloid oligomers, the channel, called the NMDA receptor, opens, thus allowing the calcium flow that drives neurons back into the cell cycle.Memantine blocks cell cycle reentry by closing the NMDA receptor, Kodis found.”The experiments suggest that memantine might have potent disease-modifying properties if it could be administered to patients long before they have become symptomatic and diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease,” Bloom said. “Perhaps this could prevent the disease or slow its progression long enough that the average age of symptom onset could be significantly later, if it happens at all.”Side effects of the drug appear to be infrequent and modest.Bloom said potential patients would need to be screened for Alzheimer’s biomarkers years before symptoms appear. Selected patients then would need to be treated with memantine, possibly for life, in hopes of stopping the disease from ever developing, or further developing.”I don’t want to raise false hopes,” Bloom said, but “if this idea of using memantine as a prophylactic pans out, it will be because we now understand that calcium is one of the agents that gets the disease started, and we may be able to stop or slow the process if done very early.”Bloom currently is working with colleagues at the UVA School of Medicine to design a clinical trial to investigate the feasibility of using memantine as an early intervention.last_img read more

Top stories Humans are still evolving Brontosaurus makes a comeback and more

first_imgIn a scientific ghost story, a U.S. atom smasher has made an important scientific contribution 3.5 years after it shut down. Scientists are reporting that the Tevatron collider in Batavia, Illinois, has provided new details about the nature of the famed Higgs boson—the particle that’s key to physicists’ explanation of how other fundamental particles get their mass and the piece in a theory called the standard model. The new result bolsters the case that the Higgs, which was discovered at a different atom smasher, exactly fits the standard model predictions.’Brontosaurus’ name resurrected by new dino family treeA dinosaur-sized study of the family tree of the Diplodocidae, the group that includes monstrous beasts such as Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, and Barosaurus, finds that the fossils originally called Brontosaurus show enough skeletal differences from other specimens of Apatosaurus that they rightfully belong to a different genus. The study brings the long-banished name “Brontosaurus” back into scientific respectability as a genus coequal with Apatosaurus.How much personal cash do you spend on your science?Although academic research is predominantly funded by grants, scientists—like teachers and people in many other professions—sometimes dip into their own wallets to cover job-related expenses, such as conference travel or open-access publishing fees. Just how much personal finance pours into professional science isn’t clear, but two scientists are now trying to tally some numbers.In Hawaii, protests force pause in construction of world’s largest telescopeThe governor of Hawaii yesterday brokered a 1-week pause in the construction of the world’s largest telescope atop the Mauna Kea volcano in the wake of protests by Native Hawaiian activists, who say the project is desecrating sacred land. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Email Did natural selection make the Dutch the tallest people on the planet?Insecure about your height? You may want to avoid this tiny country by the North Sea, whose population has gained an impressive 20 centimeters in the past 150 years and is now officially the tallest on the planet. Scientists chalk up most of that increase to rising wealth, a rich diet, and good health care, but a new study suggests something else is going on as well: The Dutch growth spurt may be an example of human evolution in action.Years after shutting down, U.S. atom smasher reveals properties of ‘God particle’center_img Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrylast_img read more

Breathtaking fossil of tiny mammal preserves fur and internal organs

first_img Email Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Most of our knowledge of very ancient life comes from fossilized remains of hard tissues—bones, shells, and teeth. Now, the exquisitely preserved fossil of a tiny mammal from the time of the dinosaurs reveals a variety of soft tissues, including skin, fur, and spines; even remnants of its external ear were fossilized. The find pushes back the earliest record of mammalian internal organs and well-preserved fur by more than 60 million years, and shows that ancient fur and spines formed just as they do in today’s mammals.“Finding complete fossils like this raises the bar for the rest of us,” says Richard Cifelli, a vertebrate paleontologist at the University of Oklahoma, Norman, who was not involved with the new study. “My breath is taken away.”The fossil was unearthed from 125-million-year-old rocks in central Spain. In life, the creature likely measured about 24 centimeters (9.4 inches) in length and weighed between 50 and 70 grams—about the size and proportions of a juvenile rat, says Zhe-Xi Luo, a vertebrate paleontologist at the University of Chicago in Illinois. Luo and colleagues dubbed the new species Spinolestes xenarthosus. Spino refers to the creature’s hedgehoglike spines, and the Greek suffix lestes means “robber”—a term commonly used in the names of ancient mammals because of their presumed nocturnal habits. The species name xenarthrosus refers to the odd way the creature’s spinal vertebrae interlock and stiffen the back, similar to modern-day armadillos, anteaters, and other mammals in a group called xenarthrans.center_img Spinolestes belongs to a once widespread but now extinct group of rat-sized-or-smaller mammals called triconodonts, which got their name from the three conical projections on each of their molars. Whereas fossils of triconodonts have been found in many areas of North America and Eurasia, Spinolestes is the first from the group to be found in Spain, Luo says.The finely layered limestones that entombed the fossil were deposited in a freshwater wetland. Rapid burial of the ancient carcass in sediment, as well as low concentrations of oxygen in the ancient marsh, likely contributed to its exceptional preservation, Luo says. The overall shape and arrangement of bones in the creature’s feet suggests that it was a ground-dweller and may have dug into the soil to forage for grubs or other prey.This is the first time some of the features preserved in the fossil are seen in dinosaur-era mammals. For instance, the shafts of individual hairs have the same three-layered structure seen in modern mammals, Luo says. Some of the skin’s follicles have more than one hair growing from them, and in other cases the structures emanating from several different follicles have merged to form tiny spines like those seen in modern-day hedgehogs, the researchers report online today in Nature. In some places on the body, hairs appear to have broken off close to the skin and were discolored near the broken tips—signs that the creature may have had a fungal infection called dermatophytosis that’s common in living mammals.Although much older mammalian fossils include remnants of hair, Luo notes, those structures are mere impressions and don’t preserve the detail seen in the newly described fossil.The fossil also includes internal organs. Within the ribcage, there are patches of soft tissue that contain tubular structures in a branching pattern, which the team interprets as preserved lung tissue. Farther down in the abdomen is a large oval region of reddish brown material—likely the remnants of the creature’s liver, Luo says. The sharp boundary between the two suggests that Spinolestes had a strong muscular diaphragm, which in turn hints at the ability to rapidly breathe and fuel an active lifestyle.“Diaphragm, liver, lungs; it’s amazing to see all that detail,” Cifelli says. Plus, he notes, Spinolestes has all the hair categories seen in modern mammals “and that’s not a small thing.” Only fossils unearthed in recent years provided evidence that ancient mammals had fur that looked like that seen in modern relatives. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)last_img read more

Reality check Taking antidepressants while pregnant unlikely to double autism risk in

first_img Email Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) No one really knows why rates of autism, or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), have roughly doubled over the past 10 years. Many researchers say the jump in numbers comes from greater public awareness of the condition, a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by altered social interaction, and from changing diagnostic criteria that are catching previously undetected cases. Others look to environmental influences, such as exposure to toxins.Now, a new study is raising eyebrows in the psychiatry and neuroscience communities. It suggests that women who use antidepressants while pregnant are nearly twice as likely to bear children with ASD. Many epidemiologists and psychiatrists say the study, published today in JAMA Pediatrics, is flawed and will cause unnecessary panic.The controversy isn’t new. Research in animals has hinted that antidepressants such as Prozac and Lexapro, from a class of drugs called serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), may alter certain aspects of fetal neurodevelopment. A few epidemiological studies have even found a small correlation between SSRI use during pregnancy and ASD, but that can largely be explained by other factors, such as the severity of a mother’s depression, says Lars Henning Pedersen, at Aarhus University in Denmark, who has no affiliations with any antidepressant manufacturers. Several other epidemiological studies have found no association between SSRIs and ASD. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrycenter_img In the new study, perinatal epidemiologist Anick Bérard, at the University of Montreal in Canada, and colleagues used data collected on 145,456 infants born in Quebec between January 1998 and December 2009 to calculate the risk of autism among babies whose mothers had used one or more antidepressants while pregnant. Among children whose mothers used one SSRI during the second or third trimester, there was a seemingly dramatic 87% increase in diagnosis with ASD compared with those whose mothers did not receive the drugs. For those mothers who had used more than two classes of antidepressants during late pregnancy, their child’s risk of developing ASD increased four-fold.The authors say that the findings suggest that pregnant women with mild to moderate—though not severe—depression should avoid antidepressants if possible. For mild-to-moderate depression, “exercise and psychotherapy work very well,” says Bérard, who also serves as a consultant for plaintiffs in litigations involving antidepressants and birth defects.Some say that’s a misleading and potentially dangerous conclusion, given two factors: the relatively low incidence of ASD in the general population and the fact that maternal depression—which can lead to poor sleep and eating patterns—can lead to greater health risks for unborn children. Incidence in the general population is about 1%, for example, so an 87% increase in ASD risk due to SSRI use would raise a child’s absolute risk of developing autism to roughly 2%. That increase—if indeed caused by antidepressants—could be offset by benefits to the mother, which include a reduced use of harmful substances and a reduced risk of suicide.But the “critical flaw” in the new research is that it doesn’t fully account for the fact that women suffering from psychiatric illnesses already have a greater risk of having children with ASD, says Roy Perlis, a psychiatric geneticist at Harvard University who consults for several biotechnology startups. Although the authors controlled for maternal depression, “they don’t really have reliable measures of severity,” he says. As a result, there’s no way to tell whether the children were at higher risk because their mothers were taking more drugs or because the women had more severe depression. Several papers, including two from Perlis’s group, have looked at large numbers of women and children and found no increased risk for ASD after adjusting for the severity of maternal depression, he says. “The risk travels with the disease, not the treatment,” he says.  Indeed, given the lack of evidence as to whether SSRIs and other antidepressants have any causal effect on fetal neurodevelopment, it’s possible that SSRIs could actually help a developing fetus whose mother is depressed, says Jay Gingrich, a psychiatrist at Columbia University who has no affiliations with any pharmaceutical companies. “Suffice it to say that there is a urgent need for more research into this area.” Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwelast_img read more

Static electricity strengthens desert dust storms

first_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country When this happens, the larger sand grains typically lose electrons to the lighter dust particles, giving the dust a negative charge. The dust particles are blown higher into the air more readily, whereas the now positively charged sand grains usually remain closer to ground level. That separation of charges creates an electric field that may help electrify some of the dust still bound to sand grains, thus boosting even more of it into the air.Previous studies have suggested that electric fields generated during the early stages of a sandstorm would have that effect, but nobody had made field measurements to support the idea, says Francesca Esposito, a planetary scientist at the National Institute for Astrophysics in Naples, Italy. So she and her colleagues set out to do just that. At a broad, flat site in southeastern Morocco, they set up a weather station that would constantly measure wind speed, temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, and sunlight intensity. Extra sensors measured the electric field 2 meters above the ground. The team collected data during the height of the Saharan dust storm seasons in 2013 and 2014.The instruments chronicled several dust storms and dust devils. And in each of those events, the electric field grew stronger than normal, often in just a matter of seconds—bolstering the idea that the shuffling of sand grains generates static electricity. But the data showed another trend, too: When the wind blew above certain speeds, as much as 10 times the expected amount of dust rose from the ground, the researchers report online in Geophysical Research Letters. On each occasion, the rise was very rapid, suggesting that the dust emissions and the electric field were reinforcing each other, Esposito says.Renno, who co-authored a paper suggesting such a dust-boosting feedback loop in 2008, says he is seeing similar phenomena in field studies at California’s Owens Lake. In some cases, the electric fields differ in direction from those Esposito and her colleagues measured—possibly, Renno says, because different minerals make up the sand and dust at the two sites.The findings might be a boon for climate scientists. Atmospheric dust may have a powerful effect on climate, absorbing sunlight and warming the atmosphere at some altitudes while shading and cooling underlying layers of air. Some of the largest uncertainties in current climate models stem from their wide-ranging estimates of the size and number of dust particles in the atmosphere. Many of those models estimate the sizes and numbers of dust particles in the atmosphere based on weather conditions, but they don’t include the effects of electric fields. Reducing uncertainties in the models could lead to better long-term assessments of climate, Esposito says. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) For years, scientists have noticed rapidly varying electric fields inside dust storms and dust devils, the dirty whirlwinds that skitter across many desert areas. Some even wondered how those fields might alter the size of the storms, but no one had made any measurements. Now, first-of-their-kind field tests in the western Sahara reveal that the fields—generated when windblown sand grains rub together—loft desert dust much more effectively than previously recognized, creating larger and longer lasting storms than wind alone.“I’m pleased [the new] results show that what we’d previously theorized,” says Nilton Renno, an atmospheric scientist at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, who was not involved in the new work. “But I didn’t expect to see the effect so clearly in the data.”When wind begins to blow across a sandy, dusty surface, the lightest particles aren’t the first to move. That’s because much of the dust is either stuck to larger particles or tucked between them. But when sand grains start to bounce across the surface, they strike other grains and shake loose the dust, which then rises into the air just above the ground. All that bouncing and jostling also generates static electricity—the geological version of shuffling your feet across the carpet.center_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Emaillast_img read more

The bacteria in your gut may reveal your true age

first_img By Emily MullinJan. 11, 2019 , 11:50 AM Email Dennis Kunkel Microscopy/Science Source The billions of bacteria that call your gut home may help regulate everything from your ability to digest food to how your immune system functions. But scientists know very little of how that system, known as the microbiome, changes over time—or even what a “normal” one looks like. Now, researchers studying the gut bacteria of thousands of people around the globe have come to one conclusion: The microbiome is a surprisingly accurate biological clock, able to predict the age of most people within years.To discover how the microbiome changes over time, longevity researcher Alex Zhavoronkov and colleagues at InSilico Medicine, a Rockville, Maryland–based artificial intelligence startup, examined more than 3600 samples of gut bacteria from 1165 healthy individuals living across the globe. Of the samples, about a third were from people aged 20 to 39, another third were from people aged 40 to 59, and the final third were from people aged 60 to 90.The scientists then used machine learning to analyze the data. First, they trained their computer program—a deep learning algorithm loosely modeled on how neurons work in the brain—on 95 different species of bacteria from 90% of the samples, along with the ages of the people they had come from. Then, they asked the algorithm to predict the ages of the people who provided the remaining 10%. Their program was able to accurately predict someone’s age within 4 years, they report on the preprint server bioRxiv. Out of the 95 species of bacteria, 39 were found to be most important in predicting age. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country The bacteria in your gut may reveal your true agecenter_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Bacteroides are the most common bacteria species found in the human intestinal tract. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Zhavoronkov and his colleagues found that some microbes became more abundant as people aged, like Eubacterium hallii, which is thought to be important to metabolism in the intestines. Others decreased, like Bacteroides vulgatus, which has been linked to ulcerative colitis, a type of inflammation in the digestive tract. Changes in diet, sleep habits, and physical activity likely contribute to these shifts in bacterial species, says co-author Vadim Gladyshev, a Harvard University biologist who studies aging.Zhavoronkov says this “microbiome aging clock” could be used as a baseline to test how fast or slow a person’s gut is aging and whether things like alcohol, antibiotics, probiotics, or diet have any effect on longevity. It could also be used to compare healthy people with those who have certain diseases, like Alzheimer’s, to see whether their microbiomes deviate from the norm.If the idea is validated, it would join other biomarkers scientists use to predict biological age, including the length of telomeres—the tips of chromosomes implicated in aging—and changes to DNA expression over a person’s lifetime. Combining the new aging clock with these others could yield a much more accurate picture of a person’s true biological age—and health. It could also help researchers better test whether certain interventions—including drugs and other treatments—have any effect on the aging process. “You don’t need to wait until people die to conduct longevity experiments,” Zhavoronkov says.The idea that you can predict someone’s age based on their gut microbiome is “very plausible” and of “tremendous interest” to scientists studying aging, says computer scientist and microbiome researcher Robin Knight, director of the Center for Microbiome Innovation at the University of California, San Diego. His group is analyzing 15,000 samples from the American Gut Project, a worldwide microbiome study he founded, to develop similar age predictors.But one of the challenges of developing such a clock, he adds, is that there are huge differences in which bacteria are present in the guts of people around the world. “It’s extremely important to replicate these kinds of studies with markedly different populations” to find out whether there are distinct signs of aging in different groups of people, Knight says.He says it’s also not known whether changes in the microbiome cause people to age more rapidly, or whether the changes are simply a side effect of aging. InSilico Medicine is building several aging clocks based on machine learning that could be combined with the microbiome one. “Age is such an important parameter in all kinds of diseases,” Zhavoronkov says. “Every second we change.”last_img read more

Is the fishing industry leaving enough food for Antarcticas top predators

first_img AUSCAPE INTERNATIONAL PTY LTD/ALAMY STOCK PHOTO 0 (MAP) A. CUADRA/SCIENCE; (DATA) INSTITUTE OF MARINE RESEARCH Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country CCAMLR organized the previous large krill survey, in 2000. The central finding—about 60 million tons of krill in the Scotia Sea—reassured managers that they had been adequately conservative. But much smaller surveys, conducted annually in a few places, have shown that regional krill populations go through boom and bust cycles, making it harder to gauge the health of the overall stock from a single survey. “We have pieces, but we are missing the big picture,” says marine biologist Rodolfo Werner, an adviser to the Pew Charitable Trusts and the Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition, who is based in Bariloche, Argentina. John Smith / Science Km South Atlantic Ocean By Erik StokstadJan. 15, 2019 , 5:05 PM Scotia Sea Ship echosounder transects Is the fishing industry leaving enough food for Antarctica’s top predators? Krill, crustaceans smaller than a cigarette, play an outsize role in the ecology of the ocean around Antarctica: Penguins, whales, and other predators feast on vast swarms of the shrimplike animals. Now, researchers have launched a broad international survey of krill’s main habitat in the Scotia Sea—the first in nearly 20 years—to learn whether a growing fishing industry is leaving enough for krill’s natural predators.The effort, led by the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) in Bergen, Norway, began in earnest last week when Norway’s new polar research vessel Kronprins Haakon sailed from Punta Arenas, Chile, for the Scotia Sea. It and five other vessels will spend nearly 2 months mapping krill abundance across an area about the size of Mexico. Beside gauging population, the project will test tools for cheaper, more frequent surveys that could improve oversight of the fishery. “With a more dynamic management system, we can be more certain that the fishery is not negatively affecting the krill populations or the predators,” says Bjørn Krafft, a marine biologist at IMR who is directing the $5 million Norwegian cruise.Soviet vessels were the first to ply the Southern Ocean for krill, which was ground into fish meal. By the 1980s, scientists began to worry about the effect on krill-feeding predators. The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), a treaty organization established in 1982, set tight limits on fishing, now at 620,000 tons per year. Most fishing stopped after the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union, but it has been slowly growing again. Norway takes about half the current catch, extracting omega-3 fatty acids for nutritional supplements. “We absolutely need to know whether the catch limit is still precautionary,” says Simeon Hill, an ecologist with the British Antarctic Survey in Cambridge, who is not involved in the project.center_img Email Area in detail South SandwichIslands Krill feed on phytoplankton and are a critical part of the food web. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Source: A source name here During the survey, vessels will retrace the previous transects, measuring krill swarms with echosounders, a kind of sonar, and confirming the identification with sampling trawls. Some ships will measure oceanographic variables as well, such as temperature, currents, and plankton, to see whether they can be used to predict krill abundance.IMR will also test remote devices that could gather krill data continuously and more cheaply. The Haakon will deploy moored sensors, as well as wave gliders and a sail-propelled buoy, in order to compare their readings with the net and echosounder data. “This is one of the most beneficial parts of the survey,” says Bettina Meyer, a krill ecophysiologist at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven, Germany.At the same time, land-based teams from IMR and the Norwegian Polar Institute will track seals, whales, and penguins foraging for krill in the Bransfield Strait, an important feeding ground near the Antarctic Peninsula. Matching their feeding behavior with survey results “has big potential to get a better idea of the interactions between the krill fisheries and the predators,” says So Kawaguchi, a marine ecologist with the Australian Antarctic Division in Kingston.The survey itself won’t be able to reveal how the overall krill population in the Scotia Sea might have changed since the 2000 survey, given the variability of krill populations over space and time. Finding out what drives population changes will require more research on the seasonal movement of krill, for example, and the impact of climate change. Loss of sea ice, which protects young krill from predators, is expected to reduce their abundance, and rising water temperatures and acidification could also pose serious threats—ones that even the best management plan might not avert. Falkland Islands 400 Sampling stations South Georgia Island Casting a wide net To estimate abundance of krill, a keystone species, six ships will use echosounders and focus sampling around fishing hot spots.last_img read more

Are dinosaur fossils minerals The Montana Supreme Court will decide high stakes

first_img By Jeremy P. Jacobs, E&E NewsJul. 10, 2019 , 11:10 AM Originally published by E&E NewsPristine dinosaur fossils discovered in Montana have sparked a property rights dispute that has hit paleontologists like an asteroid.The lawsuit, now at the Montana Supreme Court, concerns who owns some of the greatest fossil finds in the last century, including two dinosaurs preserved while locked in combat and a rare complete Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton. The remains of two “dueling dinosaurs” have sparked an ownership dispute that could set legal precedent. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Are dinosaur fossils ‘minerals’? The Montana Supreme Court will decide high stakes case They are worth millions, and paleontologists say a federal appeals court ruling would have “fundamental and extraordinary impacts upon the conduct of science concerning the history of life on Earth.”The case hinges on a seemingly straightforward question: Are fossils considered “minerals” under Montana state law?In Montana, rights to a property’s mineral estate are often severed from its surface rights. Historically, fossils have been considered part of the surface estate.That all seemed to change last November when the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals sided with the owners of the mineral rights of a ranch where the fossils were found.The ruling sent shock waves through the paleontology world, threatening to upend the way fossil hunters have operated for decades.It would make searching for fossils extremely complicated, said David Polly, a former president of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, based in Bethesda, Maryland, because paleontologists would need to navigate both surface ownership—to get to the dig location—and mineral ownership of a parcel. Often, mineral rights are hard to find and frequently change hands between large corporations.More alarmingly, he said, it could raise questions about the ownership of fossils currently in museums.”In principle, it could have opened those to post hoc challenges,” Polly said. “If those started disappearing from collections, it would be a disaster.”Polly’s group, as well as several museums across the country, got involved after that 9th Circuit ruling. They enlisted Gary Guzy, the former White House Council on Environmental Quality and Environmental Protection Agency general counsel.Now, they’ve convinced the San Francisco-based 9th Circuit to pump the brakes. It has referred the case to the Montana Supreme Court, where it will be taken up later this year.Guzy, who now works for the firm Covington & Burling LLP in Washington, D.C., said his clients quickly realized the scope of the 9th Circuit decision.”What seemed apparent was that what had been depicted all along as a private party contractual and almost property dispute really had significant implications for the paleontological profession,” he said, “and the range of institutions that are involved in promoting the knowledge of the history of life on Earth.””Greatest paleontological find of this century”Spanning parts of Montana, the Dakotas and Wyoming, the Hell Creek Formation is one of the world’s most studied areas for clues into life some 66 million years ago.Within the formation is a tract of land in Garfield County, Montana, that was previously owned by George Severson.Around 1983, Mary Ann and Lige Murray leased the land from Severson and worked it as ranchers. Over the following years, Severson transferred parts of the land to the Murrays and his two sons—Jerry and Bo Severson.In 2005, the Severson sons agreed to sell the surface rights to the Murrays while retaining much of the mineral rights.The value of those rights quickly escalated.Shortly after the sale, the Murrays and an amateur fossil hunter, Clayton Phipps, found on their property a mother lode of fossils—a “spike cluster,” as it is known in paleontology.In 2006, they discovered complete fossils of two dinosaurs that appear to have been fighting when they died.The Murrays quickly named the fossils the “Dueling Dinosaurs,” and the scientific importance of the fossils is hard to overstate, said paleontologist Peter Larson, president of the Black Hills Institute of Geological Research in Hill City, South Dakota.”The Dueling Dinosaurs are probably the greatest paleontological find of this century,” said Larson, who has seen the fossils and spoken with the Murrays.Larson explained why such a find is so rare. The dinosaurs appear to have been fighting on a sandbar in the middle of a river. Something happened — probably an earthquake — that liquefied the sand underneath them, sucking them down and preserving their skeletons.”It is a pristine record of an interaction between a prey animal and predator,” he said, adding that they were the most pristine complete dinosaurs ever found in the area.The following year, a triceratops foot was found, then, in 2011, a triceratops skull.Then came perhaps the pièce de résistance. In 2013, a complete T. rex was discovered on the property. The “Murray T. rex” is considered one of only a dozen ever found in such condition.A “bizarre” rulingWhen the Seversons got word of the finds, they quickly sought to declare ownership of the fossils, including the T. rex, which the Murrays were trying to sell to a Dutch museum for several million dollars.The Murrays filed a lawsuit seeking a declaration that the fossils were theirs because they owned the surface rights to the land.A district court sided with the Murrays, leading the Seversons to appeal to the 9th Circuit.There, in a colorful opinion, the court sided with the Seversons.”Once upon a time, in a place now known as Montana, dinosaurs roamed the land,” wrote Eduardo Robreno, a senior Pennsylvania district judge who was on the panel by designation.”On a fateful day, some 66 million years ago, two such creatures, a 22-foot-long theropod and a 28-foot-long ceratopsian, engaged in mortal combat. While history has not recorded the circumstances surrounding this encounter, the remnants of these Cretaceous species, interlocked in combat, became entombed under a pile of sandstone. That was then … this is now.”The 2-1 ruling sided with the Seversons, saying they “have the better of the arguments” (E&E News PM, Nov. 6, 2018).Lawyers for the Murrays declined to comment and said their clients are not speaking to the media. The Seversons’ attorneys said their clients are traveling and could not be reached.The ruling spurred considerable hand-wringing in the paleontological community, Larson of the Black Hills Institute said, calling the 9th Circuit decision a “really bizarre ruling.”Quickly, some of the most important players in the field weighed in, including the 2,200-member Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago and the Museum of the Rockies.They, along with a Montana property rights group, backed the Murrays in court documents when they asked the court to reconsider the case — or send it to the Montana Supreme Court.”The panel’s decision imposes extraordinary uncertainty upon scientists and the public,” they wrote, and it may “destabilize title to countless important fossils in academic, museum, and private collections around the world … potentially subjecting those fossils to ownership challenges by holders of Montana mineral deeds.”The 9th Circuit took the unusual step of granting the rehearing, vacating their earlier decision and then punting the question to the Montana Supreme Court — a good sign for the Murrays.”Given the frequency of divided ownership of Montana surface and mineral estates, and that Montana possesses vast deposits of valuable vertebrate fossil specimens, the issue is substantial and of broad application,” the court wrote.”Therefore, after considering these factors, and in the spirit of comity and federalism, we exercise our discretion to certify this question to the Montana Supreme Court.”Other aspects of the dispute also appear to be breaking the Murrays’ way.In April, Montana enacted a law that states “fossils are not minerals and that fossils belong to the surface estate.”The law, however, does not apply to existing disputes, though the “Dueling Dinos” case is likely the only existing matter of its kind.”One can always make assumptions, and courts can do whatever they want,” Larson said. “But it seems like our side is in a good position.”Reprinted from Greenwire with permission from E&E News. Copyright 2019. E&E provides essential news for energy and environment professionals at www.eenews.netRelated stories:Not Sold! ‘Dueling Dinos’ Flop at Auction (November 2013)Selling America’s Fossil Record (January 2014) Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Email ©BHIGR 2013 Read more… Click to view the privacy policy. 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Fresno High School Blackface Video Sparks Outrage

first_img Blackface There is also a second video of the same girl on the Fresno campus of Bullard High School, where she is said to be a cheerleader. In this video, she continued to share even more of her racist views.Both videos had been shared widely via Snapchat, but they finally sparked national outrage after Fresno community activist Stacy Williams posted one of the videos on her Facebook page. Unfortunately, this instance is but a mere snapshot into what Nelson acknowledged as the city’s history of racism. The superintendent recognized that the city has been known for redlining and segregation. He also said that Black males enrolled in special education classes are more likely to be expelled or suspended.Just days before the video began circulating, the Fresno Grizzlies, the city’s minor-league baseball team, lost its sponsorships with Heineken International and Sun-Maid after showing a video portraying New York Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez as an “enemy of freedom” during a Memorial Day baseball game. In the video, they presented the freshmen Congresswoman in the likeness of North Korean dictator Kim Jong Un.SEE ALSO:‘It’s Above Me Now’: Hotel Clerk’s Video With Racist Guest Goes ViralRyan Keith Cox Sacrificed His Life In The Virginia Beach Shooting To Save Others This is a Bullard High School student. This is hate. ⁦@shaunking⁩ ⁦@GMA⁩ ⁦@ABC⁩ ⁦@ABC30⁩ ⁦@CNN⁩ ⁦@cnnbrk⁩ pic.twitter.com/Wp4bx2QnXe— Pahoua Lor (@pclor22) June 1, 2019“When our schools create a campus culture of hate & racism, & act in complicit silence, we as a community must protect our children,’ Williams said in relation to the video. “It’s gotten to a point where people have tried and felt like there isn’t accountability,’Many people had a lot to say about the young girl’s actions, including one Facebook user who believed things have been getting worse.‘I have this theory that each generation coming into high school as freshmen are getting worse and worse as far as it goes for behaviour,” a user wrote.There were others who were calling on the school to punish the girl for her actions.“This is disgusting why has she not been kicked out or punished?’ Another user asked.A concerned resident even sent the photos directly to the Fresno Unified Superintendent, Bob Nelson, who condemned the girl’s behavior.It’s very serious,” Nelson said Saturday. “We need to hold her accountable for her actions and the implications thereof. I don’t want to diminish the significance of the pain and anguish that this causes in others. That being said, I want to do more than just see people attack one another on social media. It doesn’t help us do the very real work we need to do.” Morehouse Students Take To Social Media And Claim Sexual Harassment Complaints Were Ignored More By Megan Sims Jamaican Republican Who Is Running Against AOC Supported Her A Year Ago Thanks for signing up! Get ready for Exclusive content, Interviews,and Breaking news delivered direct to your inbox. Get ready for Exclusive content, Interviews,and Breaking news delivered direct to your inbox.center_img White Tears! Former Meteorologist Files Lawsuit Claiming He Was Fired Because Of Diversity The disturbing trend of white people wearing blackface and spewing racist language does not seem even remotely close to slowing down. One high school student in California became the latest racist-in-training to spark outrage over her disgusting behavior that has made the rounds on social media.In the viral video, a 14-year-old white girl, who has not been publicly identified since she is a minor, is seen in what looks like to be the inside of someone’s home wearing blackface paint or makeup. While her friends giggle incessantly the girl utters to the camera, “who said I can’t say ‘nigga?’” SUBSCRIBE Entertainment, News and Lifestyle for Black America. News told by us for us. Black America’s #1 News Source: Our News. Our Voice. A Disturbing Timeline Of 4-Year-Old Maleah Davis Going Missing After Being Left With Her Stepfather Derion Vence, Maleah Davis, Brittany Bowens last_img read more

100 Years Since the Greatest Pandemic in History

first_imgIn 1918, as the devastating conflict of World War One was close to winding down, an epidemic began that would kill more people than the war itself. Known as the Spanish Flu, it quickly spread and engulfed much of the planet. It isn’t known exactly where the deadly influenza virus came from. However, the first reported cases were at a military base in the United States in early 1918.America had recently entered the Great War on the Allied side. Thousands of soldiers were being housed together and then sent off to Europe to fight.A street car conductor in Seattle in 1918 refusing to allow passengers aboard who are not wearing masks.Although the pandemic did not originate in Spain, there is a reason it was given the name. Most countries of North America and Europe were at war and the news outlets in these nations were censored by authorities.American Expeditionary Force victims of the Spanish flu at U.S. Army Camp Hospital no. 45 in Aix-les-Bains, France, in 1918.However, Spain was neutral and allowed news of the spreading virus to circulate freely. The casualties in Spain from the flu were also higher than the rest of Europe. Mistakenly, many people assumed that this particular strain began in Spain and the name stuck.American Red Cross nurses tend to flu patients in temporary wards set up inside Oakland Municipal Auditorium, 1918.Beginning in a mild form early in 1918, by the autumn of that year the strain had taken a severe and deadly turn. Unlike other common influenzas, which tended to affect the young and the elderly, the Spanish flu hit people between 20 and 40 years old particularly hard. This was especially disruptive as it hit adults caring for young children, leaving thousands orphaned.Asia and Africa suffered the highest rates of death. Cities were affected more than rural areas. Men tended to be more susceptible than women. The poor, ethnic minorities, and immigrants were more likely to be infected.The Spanish Influenza. Chart showing mortality from the 1918 influenza pandemic in the U.S. and Europe.In the 19th century, scientists had gained further knowledge about bacteria. As a result, societies were starting to improve health and sanitary conditions in many parts of the world. It was thought that the latest flu outbreak was caused by germs. But the understanding of diseases spread by a virus such as influenza was still relatively new and misunderstood.An electron micrograph showing recreated 1918 influenza virions.People around the world turned to various rituals to try to stop the dying. There were mass prayer gatherings in Europe despite warnings that crowds of people together would spread the influenza. In some rural parts of China, models of dragons were paraded through streets to scare away evil spirits.Despite the lack of understanding of what caused the Spanish flu and with no vaccines available, governments around the world mobilized against it. Quarantine areas were established for the sick. Large gatherings of people were prohibited. Some measures may have slowed the spread of the virus. Australia kept quarantine facilities at all points of entry, limiting the effects of the worst waves of the flu.Demonstration at the Red Cross Emergency Ambulance Station in Washington, D.C., during the influenza pandemic of 1918.Despite preventative measures, the Spanish flu was a catastrophe. Up to one-third of the world’s population at the time was infected, an estimated 500 million people. It’s estimated that up to 50 million likely died from the pandemic, maybe more.February 1918 drawing by Marguerite Martyn of a visiting nurse in St. Louis, Missouri.Individual suffering was horrendous. After developing typical flu-like symptoms such as coughing and fever, the victim’s skin would turn blue and their lungs filled with fluid, leading to suffocation. Death would often occur just hours or days after developing symptoms. In 1918, the average life expectancy of Americans dropped by 12 years.Influenza ward at Walter Reed Hospital during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918–1919.The effects on societies were also devastating. Along with the aftermath of years of war, the Spanish flu further disrupted economies and governments that were already struggling. The autumn of 1918 witnessed the rise of workers’ strikes and anti-government protests around the globe.Soldiers from Fort Riley, Kansas, ill with Spanish influenza at a hospital ward at Camp Funston.Parts of Europe were on the brink of civil war. In India, up to 18 million died in the pandemic. The suffering increased agitation against the colonial British lack of response to the crisis, spreading the growing independence movement.Read another story from us: The Human Remains of Skeleton Lake – Visible Only when the Ice MeltsBy the summer of 1919, the Spanish flu pandemic effectively came to an end. In 2008, scientists made a discovery on what made the 1918 virus so deadly. According to researchers, there were three genes affected by the Spanish flu that weakened a victim’s bronchial tubes and lungs. That opened the way for pneumonia to set in and become fatal.last_img read more